Scintillators for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)
From 1990 to 1994, CCC made an intensive investigation for the quest of the most adequate ideal scintillator for the LHC; three main candidates were identified and extensively studied: CeF3 , PbWO4 and heavy scintillating glasses. Lead tungstate was chosen by CMS and ALICE as the most cost effective crystal compliant to LHC conditions. Today 76648 PWO crystals are installed in CMS and 17920 in ALICE.
E. Auffray et al., "Extensive studies on CeF3 crystals, a good candidate for electromagnetic calorimetry at future accelerators", Nucl. Instrum. and Methods in Phys. Res. A, Vol. 383, Is. 2–3, (1996), 367-390, ISSN 0168-9002, 10.1016/S0168-9002(96)00806-6. [CERN-PPE-96-064]
E. Auffray et al., "Cerium doped heavy metal fluoride glasses, a possible alternative for electromagnetic calorimetry", Nucl. Instrum. and Methods in Phys. Res. A, Vol. 380, Is. 3, (1996), 524-536, ISSN 0168-9002, 10.1016/0168-9002(96)00717-6.[CERN-PPE-96-035, CMS note 1996-107].
P. Lecoq et al., "Lead tungstate (PbWO4) scintillators for LHC EM calorimetry", Nucl. Instrum. and Methods in Phys. Res., Vol. 365, Is. 2–3, (1995), 291-298, ISSN 0168-9002, 10.1016/0168-9002(95)00589-7. [CERN/PPE/94-225, CMS TN/94-308]